The 510 House is a private residence located in a postwar suburb on Milwaukee’s north shore, its volume carefully embedded in the site’s gently sloping contours and cradled by the mature trees and thick underbrush lining the property’s edges. The owners, a professional couple with busy work schedules, asked for a house that would accommodate their conflicting desires for privacy and serenity on one hand, and for the frequent hosting of social events on the other.
In response, the program of the house was organized as two interlocking building forms, their “T” configuration bifurcating the site into a “public” entry court for visitors and vehicles, and a private, visually shielded greenspace in the back. Parking, service functions, and the main bedroom suite are consolidated in a long, single-story bar, a narrow, wood-clad volume that straddles the two sides of the property along its western edge. Spaces for guests and entertainment are housed in a complementary, perpendicular volume defined by a continuous concrete block ribbon that engages the wood-clad bar, negotiates the dropping topography of the site, and ultimately folds up to form an elevated observatory with views of the surrounding tree tops and the shores of Lake Michigan in the near distance.
The deeply recessed entry vestibule, marking the junction of the two interlocking building forms, provides access to both private and public quarters and leads into the adjacent open living hall – the social epicenter of the home where the owners and their guests can cook, dine, and lounge together, all in a commodious space defined by a series of carefully variegated, green-hued perimeter walls. The color green, whose spectral wavelength of 510 nanometers became the project’s namesake, serves as an architectural device to infuse the interior year-round with the lush tones of summer’s verdant but short-lived greenery surrounding the site – an abstract and deliberately cheerful echo of nature’s chromatic vibrancy, particularly potent during those long, protracted winter months when the actual apertures of the house frame somber views into Wisconsin’s frozen landscape. The green perimeter walls extend their interior hues to the exterior, where they express the volume of the living hall as the building’s proud piano nobile – a distinct and intelligible architectural element suspended within the folding concrete ribbon of the main building mass to formally emphasize the primary activity hub of the house.
An open, linear kitchen runs along one side of the living hall. The pantry wall transforms into a continuous wooden ceiling liner that spatially defines the dining and lounging area and folds down at the opposite end to accommodate the built-in media cabinet. A complimentary small sitting area faces the kitchen island and is backed by tall sheets of glass that enclose the delicate steel stairs beyond. The stairs lead up to the observatory, which provides access to an expansive vegetated roof, and down to a small guest lounge and bedroom suite, which spills out to an intimate sunken terrace with a fire pit.
gallery and studio
The Topo House sits in the unglaciated landscape of Wisconsin’s “Driftless Region,” an area with softly rolling hills and tight ravines. Based on early conceptual studies interpreting the site’s distinct topography as a series of folded parallel planes, the house forms a low-slung, partially submerged building volume with a meticulously detailed copper roof plane that slowly peels itself up from the ground and extends the adjacent fields as a green carpet over the lower portion of the house. The project demonstrates how a building can literally merge with its context, blurring the boundaries between landscape and architecture, between nature and tectonics.
The program is organized in two staggered bars with a total area of 3,300 sf. Small exterior courtyards carved out of the building volume create an amorphous footprint whose ambiguous perimeter is normalized by the continuous copper roof ribbon, which gradually rises and ultimately terminates in a dramatic cantilever over the large south-facing vista terrace. The courtyards – one covered, the other two open to the sky – function as sheltered outdoor rooms that provide protection against the area’s strong and ever-changing winds. On the inside, rooms are interconnected to create a continuous spatial meander that traces the site’s topography: the program is distributed on five individual floor plates, each one of them separated from the next by several steps, creating a progression through the house that leads from the entry at the lowest elevation to a small observatory at the top.
Echoing the dramatic surface deformations that occur when wind blows over the crops and grasses of the surrounding prairie, the building skin – a high-performance ventilated rainscreen system with concrete fiber panels – is organized by 190 individually shaped black-anodized aluminum fins of interrelated contracting and expanding shapes. Depending on the time of the day and the angle from which they are viewed, the fins create a constantly changing veil whose shifting geometry subverts the volumetric purity of the house itself. The rainscreen system is complemented by textured cast-in-place concrete walls whose deep, randomly spaced reveals juxtapose the consistent rhythm of the vertical fins.
TS 1106 is the radical transformation of an existing residential unit on the 11th floor of the former Terminal Storage building at the edge of downtown Milwaukee. The original apartment, built during the uninspired 2005 conversion of the long-vacant structure into a residential building, featured an ill-conceived maze of cellular, disjointed spaces and the predictable developer-driven palette of bromide finishes.
The removal of extraneous partition walls, dropped ceilings, and expendable doors allowed for the spatial reconfiguration of the apartment and the creation of its new domestic epicenter, a large open space for cooking, dining, and living. A continuous rift-sawn white oak ribbon weaves through the entire unit and serves as the principal architectural device to organize the unit. At once cabinetry, wayfinder, and spatial tie, the sculptural ribbon leads from the entry vestibule into the open living space, wrapping the existing central bathroom core and folding up into a ceiling plane to delineate the kitchen before turning into the perimeter wall of the main bedroom wing.
As it undulates between floor and ceiling, the three-dimensional wood ribbon creates openings and articulates physical and visual thresholds between adjacent spaces, intermittently framing large amber-colored glass panels that add a powerful chromatic accent to the deliberately restrained interior material palette. The glass panels act as visual filters that draw warm light deep into the unit’s core and transform into enigmatic canvases, their blurred projections subtly revealing glimpses of the life unfolding in the rooms beyond.
A series of sculptural built-ins engage the wood ribbon as it meanders through the apartment. Defining the edge of the kitchen, a continuous, varnished walnut plane peels up from the ground and turns into a long, seemingly floating bar counter, then folds up as a canopy and down again to transform into the base of the kitchen island. As it weaves through the kitchen, the walnut band cradles black-lacquered cabinet boxes, their reflective, high-sheen finish adding visual complexity to the overall composition of the space.
Echoing the formal vocabulary of folding walnut planes and nested cabinets established in the kitchen, the built-in bed in the master suite is a continuous band of walnut that serves as the mattress platform before turning into headboard and ceiling liner. Similarly, the bathroom vanity consists of a floating walnut plane that frames mirrors and frames the lacquered medicine cabinet. In the media room, the wooden ceiling canopy folds down at each end to support the suspended cabinets that bracket the intimate space.
This small house for a graphic designer and her husband sits on the heavily wooded eastern shore of Wisconsin’s Door County, a narrow peninsula on Lake Michigan. Embedded in a dense forest of deciduous and coniferous trees, the building’s unassuming volume is quietly nestled in a small clearing at the western edge of the gently sloping site, its low-slung silhouette virtually disappearing in the surrounding vegetation.
The building’s restrained exterior material palette is limited to charred cedar siding from Northern Wisconsin, its textured, somber blackness complemented by varnished clear cedar, dark-anodized aluminum, and glass. Echoing the visual depth and surface oscillations of bark covering the trunks of trees, the charred wood boards were installed over furring strips of varying depths to form a gently folding, undulating building skin, not unlike a pleated curtain – a meandering and highly faceted veil that wraps the house and replaces what could have been a conventional, sharply defined perimeter with a more ambiguous boundary, one that softens the building’s rigorous geometry and moderates the transition from artificial construct to natural context.
A narrow gravel road leads to a small, trellised forecourt carved deep into the home’s rectangular building mass, a tapered space whose forced perspective converges at the glazed vestibule and continues into a recessed covered outdoor room on the opposite side, framing views through the house and into the site’s sylvan landscape. A continuous wall of milled lumber, stacked at slight angles and finished with a lustrous varnish to create a highly tactile surface of folding ribbons, extends from the forecourt into the house and visually anchors the entry sequence. Inside, the vestibule connects to an open living space with an oversized sliding glass door system that provides access to a linear patio, its paved plane slightly sunken into the existing topography and contained by a long, illuminated concrete bench running parallel to the house. Across from the large sliding doors, a delicate sculptural steel staircase, supported by a filigree of vertical rods, anchors the living space and leads to the upper bedroom suite and the expansive vegetated roof covering the main building volume. Contrasting the building’s dark exterior shell, the interior material palette is dominated by white walls, white lacquered cabinets, and a grey polished concrete floor, all forming a deliberately neutral, serene backdrop against which the ever-changing tableau of the foliage outside can unfold.
Broadway Housing is a compact urban infill development on a long-vacant, L-shaped parcel in the southernmost part of Sacramento’s Richmond Grove district. Organized as a cluster of nine single family homes along Broadway and Yale Street, the design addresses the very different urban conditions and building typologies surrounding the site, mediating between the loosely spaced, predominantly commercial structures on busy Broadway and the dense, low-rise homes on quiet Yale Street.
The three homes on Broadway are three-story buildings, their height adding a robust urban presence to the currently fragmented street edge and taking advantage of the unobstructed southern views that the site affords. Sitting on ground floor garage plinths, the main living spaces of the Broadway homes are elevated to the second and third floors to increase privacy and provide separation from the heavy vehicular traffic on Broadway. In contrast, the six two-story houses on Yale Street adopt the more modest scale and massing of the existing homes lining the residential street, their landscaped front yards and generously glazed elevations engaging and activating the sidewalk not unlike the traditional neighbors with their front porches and large living room windows.
Designed around an ambitiously limited construction budget, the buildings each offer 1,500 square feet of living space and are organized as a series of volumes shifted against one another, resulting in carefully articulated building forms that animate the street and echo the additive character and finer architectural grain of the surrounding building stock. The houses on Broadway consist of a clean, monolithic base volume that supports and interlocks with a partially cantilevered two-story wood-clad cube above. The two-story houses on Yale Street follow a similar morphological strategy; here, an elongated wood box is embedded in the building’s rectangular body, forming a cantilevered upper-level bay that sets up a carefully proportioned, volumetric rhythm along the street.
The restrained material palette – wood, cementitious stucco, and the black poly-ash siding of entry and garage bays – aesthetically ties together the individual buildings on Broadway and Yale as one recognizable ensemble of contemporary homes. The exterior is complemented by window walls inserted into the wood boxes; facing both Broadway and Yale Street, floor-to-ceiling apertures alternate with shifting wall panels, their saturated light-orange color a buoyant nod to the vitality of this rapidly evolving Sacramento neighborhood.
A compact home for a textile artist and her young family, the Redaction House sits on a narrow sliver of land on a small suburban lake, surrounded by prosaic spec homes crowding the shoreline. The building, a simple wood cube on a stepped brick podium carved into the sloping site, is deliberately introvert, functioning as an optic filter that frames the limited lake vista while strategically editing out views of the built-up context.
A series of spatial voids carved into the building volume organize the program, starting with a linear entry courtyard along a brick wall whose decreasing perforation begins the process of visual redaction and leads to the transparent front door. Inside, floor-to-ceiling apertures alternate with solid walls, taking advantage of sightlines that are desirable and screen those that are not. The rooms are grouped around a two-story living hall, where the apertures are stacked vertically to frame views of the sky and the bluff’s deciduous foliage.
The wood cube is clad in horizontal cedar, complemented by vertical cedar between the deeply recessed apertures. Here, narrow painted boards create an unexpected filigree of colors, a subtle nod at the polychrome threads in the fiber artist’s own work.
Located along a mature but struggling retail corridor in a first-ring Milwaukee suburb, Bayshore Dental is the ambitious reinvention of an abandoned commercial building at the end of its useable life and the transformation of the upper level into a state-of-the-art dental clinic. Originally an ordinary infill building with glazing only along the street, the demolition of an adjacent structure in 1986 and the subsequent creation of a small pocket park turned the building’s suddenly exposed firewall into a prominent but entirely blank façade whose foreboding, inhospitable presence contributed to the property’s ultimate demise as viable commercial real estate.
In 2015, a young dentist with a growing reputation for innovative dentistry acquired the dilapidated building with the intention to rehabilitate it as a vibrant business anchor and locate her fledgling practice there. The project’s success depended on an architecture for the building as a whole, and the clinic in particular, that could convey the very ethos and high standards of her own professional work: uncompromising purity, flawless efficiency, and rigorous precision.
After gutting the existing building, large openings were cut into the existing firewall to animate the building’s appearance along the pocket park and increase visibility of the ground floor retail space. On the upper level, a series of new floor-to-ceiling windows draw natural light deep inside the dental clinic, their articulated, wooden box frames adding a warm element to the monochromatic, formally exacting exterior palette.
The new two-story building lobby takes patients up to the glazed entrance of the dental clinic, a carefully framed threshold that leads into the light-filled waiting room and features the tones and colors dominating the interior – shades of white and grey with occasional accents of green, all calibrated to tie into the clinic’s overarching graphic identity. The green-lacquered top of the entry cabinet, a low-slung toy chest with a retractable surface for kids’ activities, peels away from the base and turns into a linear, suspended soffit that connects the reception area with the wood-paneled consultation room located in the center of the clinic.
Optimized procedural flow strategies informed the layout of patient rooms, laboratories, staff offices, and sanitary infrastructure. The reception desk greets incoming patients and complements the formal vocabulary of clean lines and folding surfaces first introduced at the entrance. The reception’s monolithic, dark-grey volume transforms into a thin, continuous ceiling plane that functions as the dental office’s organizational back bone and establishes the central circulation spine, essentially bifurcating the clinic into a zone of operatories on one side and back-of-house spaces on the other.
The ceiling plane, skim-coated to achieve a smooth, high-sheen surface that contrasts the industrial appearance of the exposed roof trusses above, guides patients from the waiting room to the seven individual operatories, their entries marked by green vertical panels and a corresponding sequence of thin lighting strips. Together, they set up a rhythm of protruding, vertical lines that visually animate the hallway space. Sliding glass panels assure separation and HIPAA-required privacy during procedures without significantly reducing the amount of natural light that can filter through the operatories into the central corridor and beyond.
The restrooms for patients and staff feature white-oak cabinets and green-lacquered surfaces that add a visual richness rarely found in health care environments. In the operatories, the dental furniture matches the whites and grays of the interior surfaces, as do the custom built-in cabinets throughout the clinic, reverberating the crisp, clean lines of wall and ceiling planes, and contributing to a deliberately quiet, serene ambience intended to appease a sometimes apprehensive clientele.
oak park housing
Oak Park Housing is a compact urban infill development on a long-vacant lot in Sacramento’s Oak Park district, a demographically diverse neighborhood that, for decades, had suffered from economic stagnation and urban disinvestment. In recent years, young professionals, artists, and students have started to rediscover Oak Park as an affordable community close to downtown Sacramento, with new art galleries, independent coffee shops, and small businesses in tow filling abandoned storefronts throughout the area.
Oak Park Housing is one of the neighborhood’s first new residential developments since the infamous 1969 Oak Park Riots, which left lasting scars on the city’s social and physical landscape; accordingly, the project is more than just a contemporary addition to the existing housing stock: it is a harbinger of urban revitalization, its architecture cheerfully embracing the creative and buoyant energy that has propelled the ongoing renaissance of this vibrant and culturally diverse community.
The project is a dense cluster of six small homes. Carefully proportioned to echo the massing and scale of the area’s existing building stock, the houses are simple, two-story volumes, their appearance crisp but deliberately playful in a nod to the progressive and artsy spirit permeating Oak Park. Three of the units are grouped along 2nd Avenue, where they repair the fragmented street edge and mend the ragged fabric of the block. The other three homes are accessed from the public alley, continuing Sacramento’s unique typology of residential alleys that serve as active neighborhood pathways.
Designed around an ambitiously limited construction budget, each building has a living area of 1,503 square feet and consists of two interlocking components, a light-grey ground-level base and a darker, slightly cantilevered volume above. Kitchen, living and dining are consolidated as one open space on the main level, with stairs leading up to three bedrooms on the second floor.
The simple exterior palette includes cementitious stucco and fiberboard cladding, complemented by the prudently sized and carefully placed floor-to-ceiling apertures. On the upper level, the south façade transforms into an articulated field of lacquered vertical metal louvers that act as both sun screen and compositional device. The metered spacing of the louvers sets up a deeply textured, dynamic cadence, their prismatic colors complementing the homes’ otherwise neutral, muted tones and cheerfully reverberating the vivid, kaleidoscopic hues of the buildings and murals nearby.
Belay MKE is a mixed-use development at the northern edge of downtown Milwaukee, a formally restrained building that combines an 18,000-square-foot indoor rock-climbing gym with 46 small apartment units. The project occupies an urban brownfield site known as Humboldt Yards, where the repair shops of the now-defunct “Milwaukee Road” Railway were located until the early 1970s. After sitting idle for decades, Humboldt Yard has seen sporadic construction activity in recent years to absorb some of the pressure from the city’s rapidly growing downtown population.
Contrasting the typical developer fare slowly pervading the area – uninspired, bromidic buildings, each plastered with a myriad of cladding materials – Belay MKE was conceived as an intentionally solid, monolithic block, a defiantly raw building designed to reverberate the physical scale and muscular presence of the unpretentious industrial structures that used to define the fabric of Humboldt Yards.
The building’s restrained exterior palette – weathering steel, accentuated by fiber concrete panels, aluminum, and glass – reflects the inherent contradiction between a site profoundly shaped by Milwaukee’s historic role as the “Workshop of the World” and the aspirations of a swiftly transforming city attracting white-collar jobs and young people interested in an engaging urban environment: A slowly transforming skin of oxidizing corrugated steel panels wraps almost the entire building volume, its weathering skin in a carefully edited dialogue with the crisp, precise lines of aluminum extrusions and concrete panels.
The hybrid building program was organized as a simple 4-story rectangular volume. Lining the south and east edges of the building, the modular apartments take advantage of expansive views of the adjacent community greenspace and into the recently re-naturalized Milwaukee River basin. The 60-foot high long-span gym space itself projects out to the north to accommodate a pair of vertical glass walls at the end of the building – tall apertures that expose and effectively advertise the climbing activities on the inside to the passers-by on North Avenue, a busy east-west thoroughfare connecting Lake Michigan to Milwaukee’s western suburbs.
The gym’s north wall, required to be windowless to maximize the usable climbing surface inside, transforms into a highly articulated, cadenced plane organized by a series of oblique aluminum fins. The fins’ gradually shifting shapes create an animated vertical texture that changes depending on light conditions and the angle from which they are viewed, an abstract echo of the undulating climbing surfaces inside. The fins are spaced by horizontal light strips, their green acrylic lenses adding an unexpected splash of color that further activates the wall after darkness. As it reaches the top, the north wall folds into a horizontal roof plane floating five feet above the top of the main building volume to accommodate a continuous clerestory that provides the gym with an abundance of natural light throughout the day. At night, the clerestory gives the building an iconic presence, transforming it into a softly glowing neighborhood beacon illuminating Humboldt Yard’s somber urban sky.
This modest, 880 square-foot cabin for a young family sits at the edge of a small clearing, its compact volume nestled into the densely wooded hillside in a remote Wisconsin forest.
The tight budget required a rigorously simple structure. In order to minimize the building’s footprint and take advantage of the sloped site, the horizontally organized components of a traditional cabin compound – typically an open-plan longhouse with communal living space, an outhouse, and a freestanding toolshed – were reconfigured and stacked vertically. The bottom level, carved into the hill and accessible from the clearing, houses a small workshop, equipment storage, and a washroom, providing the infrastructural base for the living quarters above. A wood-slatted entry door opens to stairs that lead up to the open living hall centered around a wood-burning stove and bracketed by a simple galley kitchen and a pair of small, open sleeping rooms.
Floor-to-ceiling curtains on either end of the living hall can be moved or retracted, their undulating fabric and delicate texture adding a sensual dimension to the crisp interior palette. Depending on their arrangement, the curtains can provide privacy for the sleeping rooms, open them up to the main living space, or screen the kitchen when not in use. Large-scale lift-slide apertures along the sides of the living hall offer extensive views of the forest and direct access to an informal hillside terrace. In the summer, the apertures become screened openings, virtually transforming the living hall into a covered outdoor room and facilitating a high degree of cross-ventilation that eliminates the need for mechanical conditioning. A small study, originally conceived as another room adjacent to the living hall, was instead stacked on top of it, creating an intimate, elevated observatory with treetop views.
The meticulously detailed project takes advantage of readily available materials used in the region’s farmstead architecture. On the outside, exposed concrete, cedar, anodized metal, and cementitious plaster all echo the muted, earthy hues of the surrounding forest and rock formations. The material palette extends to the inside, where integrally colored polished concrete floors on the two main levels provide sufficiently durable surfaces against the periodic abuse from cross country skies, dogs, and muddy hiking boots. Walls, ceilings, and built-in cabinets are painted white, lightening up the interiors during the long winter months and providing a quiet, neutral foreground against which nature’s complex and ever-changing tableau, carefully framed by the cabin’s large openings, can unfold.
yale street housing
pabst mansion visitor center
Located across the street from the Pabst Mansion, a popular historic house museum and important architectural landmark, the new 8,500-square foot Visitor Center and Archive will serve as the primary point of entry for mansion tours. The building will house a gallery for changing art exhibitions, classrooms, administrative offices, as well as a large event space and catering kitchen. In addition, the new facility will allow the Pabst Mansion to display – and make available for study – one of the largest brewing archives in the country.
The Visitor Center and Archive is complementary to the historic building but unapologetically contemporary, conceived as a vibrant, cultural anchor for the neighborhood in much the same way the original mansion was in its original context. Occupying a currently vacant lot, the new building will strengthen the urban fabric along Wisconsin Avenue and establish a robust street presence with a highly articulated façade featuring glass, brick, and concrete. Visitors will be guided into the building along a custom concrete wall whose formwork is based on an abstracted, defamiliarized set of decorative patterns based on the ornamental terra cotta work of the Pabst Mansion’s exterior. Inside, an open atrium will allow views from the main level into the lower level archive. The main atrium wall is lines with a 2-story tall shelving system that allows the museum’s curatorial staff to display selected artifacts.
studio for a composer
An unassuming structure embedded in Wisconsin’s rural landscape, this intimate retreat serves as a studio for a Country Western musician to write and record his music. With its formal discipline, exacting details, and a carefully restrained material palette, the building, while unapologetically contemporary, continues the tradition of Midwestern pastoral architecture and its proud legacy of aesthetic sobriety, functional lucidity and robust craftsmanship.
A concrete podium, carved into a steep hill to provide storage space, supports a simple rectangular volume, a linear studio space whose long sides are covered by a weathering steel shroud. Oversized glazed openings at each end of the studio provide access into the space and out onto the vegetated roof of the storage plinth, carefully framing views of the picturesque surroundings. The steel shroud cantilevers over the edge of the studio volume to create a covered porch, a sheltered outdoor extension of the interior studio space. Along its edges, the shroud is slightly lifted off the concrete plinth, teasingly exposing a narrow, diaphanous clerestory that allows the studio volume to seemingly float above its base. During the day, the clerestory provides natural light for the storage space below; at night, it emits its soft, ominous glow into the dark landscape.
The building materials – exposed concrete and steel, glass, and wood – were locally sourced and chosen for their ability to age gracefully over time. The carefully detailed steel envelope, its warm color of ferrous corrosion echoing the hues of the derelict machinery left behind in the area’s abandoned farm fields, turns the building skin into an ever-changing canvas. Alloy imperfections, surface oils, and roller marks from the steel mill all leave their individual traces as the material weathers, juxtaposing the building’s strict geometry and formal restraint with a stubbornly unpredictable veneer.
d street housing
D Street Housing is an eight-unit residential development on a 0.4 acre lot on D Street in Sacramento, California, marking the threshold between the dense urban fabric of homes on 15th Street and the larger-scale commercial structures on 16th Street. Four of the eight dwelling units, grouped in twin pairs of two-story buildings, are located directly along D Street, where they repair the historic street edge established by the two existing adjacent buildings; the other four units sit in the back of the lot, pushed closely to the property line along the existing alley to maximize the size of an open, landscaped space, a communal green core bracketed by the buildings in the front and back and shared by all residents.
The proposed design, while unapologetically contemporary, is based on a careful study of Mansion Flats’ existing housing stock, creating a respectful addition to an area with a diverse and balanced mix of architectural styles, roof forms, and façade materials. Most of the existing homes in the neighborhood are simple, two-story forms articulated by additive features such as porches, living room bays, or garages. Adopting this formal strategy and echoing the volumetric rhythm of its neighbors, each building of Mansion Flats Modern is composed of an elongated stucco volume that is complemented by a varnished wood ribbon. Adding a natural, warm counterpoint to the overall material palette, the wood ribbon wraps an upper-level cantilever that slightly rises above the main roofline. The wood-clad cantilever, as well as the recessed garage bay and entry door, break down the perceived building mass and establish a deep, rhythmic profile along D Street. Not merely an exterior appliqué, the wood ribbon is instead an integral design element that ties together the building’s interior and exterior, folding into each house as a wood ceiling that delineates the first floor living hall.
Embedded in the foothills of Wilson Peak and encompassed by panoramic views of the Rockies, the Mountain House was designed on top of the existing cruciform foundation walls of an obsolete building that had been damaged beyond repair by neglect and decades of exposure to Montana’s merciless elements. Shaped by its context and the unique characteristics of the surrounding landscape, the Mountain House seeks a low profile, one that follows the lines of the site’s inclining topography and complements it with a series of flat and gently sloping volumes and planes, creating a quietly animated roofscape that subtly echoes the mountain ridges in the distance.
Organization: In a carefully choreographed entry sequence, visitors descend a hill and take steps down into a small sunken courtyard covered with a linear wood canopy. The wood canopy leads to a large entry pivot door and extends inside into the entry vestibule, which links the different parts of the building. Kitchen, dining, bedrooms and laundry are consolidated in a one-story volume that opens up to a long, south-facing terrace, its roof plane dramatically extending as a deep overhang and trellis protecting the house from the elements. Open stairs in the entry vestibule connect to the gently rising two-story bar intersecting the base volume and terminate in a small observatory, its tilted plane carefully countervailing the sloping metal shed roof that it penetrates. Large-scale apertures – custom sliding glass doors, windows, and pivot doors – frame generous views into the alpine scenery outside and connect the inside to a series of “buffer” spaces on the outside – covered patios, louvered terraces, and courtyards that blur the line between interior and exterior and link the two as a reciprocal pair exploiting the qualities of contemporary life in the mountains.
Materiality: The house is built around a palette of sustainable and highly durable materials to make this a “house for life,” its muted colors and textures inspired by the vernacular architecture dotting the Rocky Mountains landscape. The building is clad in charred cedar boards, using a century-old finishing process known in Japan as shou sugi ban. The process of charring functions as a natural preservative that extends the life of the siding up to eighty years, reliably protecting the material against rot, insects, and the onslaught of Montana’s extreme climate, all without the use of synthetic sealers or stains. The silver-black of the charred surfaces is contrasted by the smoothness and subtle sheen of clear cedar and the animated, corrugated texture of Corten steel cladding, its ferrous corrosion complementing a building envelope designed to weather gracefully over time.
The Redux House is the meticulous reinvention of a prototypical suburban ranch at the end of its life cycle. Located in a small enclave of prosaic spec homes on Milwaukee’s Northshore, the original 1967 house had fallen into serious disrepair, its spatial coherence and overall usability severely compromised by a myriad of misguided interior alterations and a cellular floorplan of small, disconnected rooms. The project illustrates how the tired bones of a dysfunctional building can be reclaimed as the framework for a rigorously contemporary, precisely detailed dwelling, one in which the everyday routines of a young family’s life can unfold comfortably.
The building’s exterior shell was restored and thermally insulated, whereas the inside was completely gutted to accommodate the radical re-organization of the interior as a series of spatially and visually interconnected spaces. Structural modifications in strategic locations allowed for new large-scale openings between the home’s previously separated parts, creating a spatial continuum that starts in the glazed the entry vestibule and links together the entire house.
The existing masonry fireplace stack, once freed from abutting walls, transformed into a visually commanding four-sided monolith anchoring the center of the house. The previously dark, internalized corridor on the second floor was partially opened up, turning into a mezzanine with a small reading nook overlooking the main living hall below. Sheathing the home’s tall, vaulted ceiling place, a thin continuous wood layer follows the gentle roof slope above the living hall and weaves into the second floor hallway to accentuate the new spatial connection between the two levels. Like a drape, the wooden ceiling liner gently folds down where it meets a vertical surface, its warm, lustrous sheen and material richness complementing the highly tactile Lannon Stone chimney and the home’s crisp, light-colored interiors.
The kitchen and dining area are consolidated as an open space in the flat-roofed eastern wing of the house, connected to the living hall with steps along a built-in credenza and entertainment cabinet. Carefully placed skylights frame views of the suburban sky and bring in natural light, as do a pair of large glass sliding doors that connect to the new backyard patio. Here, the wood flooring from the inside seamlessly transitions on the exterior into a wood deck, precisely delineating the outdoor dining space before folding up to form a linear bench with a tall back that obscures views of the saccharine Tudor-style mansion abutting the backyard.
The Nexus House, a compact residence for a young family of four, occupies a small vacant lot in Madison’s University Heights neighborhood, a designated historic district in the city center with iconic homes by Louis Sullivan, Frank Lloyd Wright, Keck & Keck, and many others. Successfully contesting the local preservation ordinance whose strict guidelines advocated stylistic mimicry while failing to recognize the neighborhood’s rich architectural diversity, we designed a quiet but unapologetically contemporary building. Its formally restrained volume is discreetly placed in the back of the trapezoidal site, where it avoids direct visual competition with its two dignified neighbors – a hundred-year old Spanish Colonial home and the Ely House from 1896, a cherished landmark on the National Register of Historic Places.
The 1,980 sf house is composed of two principal building blocks: a two-story brick podium partially embedded in the site’s existing slope; and a linear cedar-clad meander that wraps up and over the podium before transforming into a cantilever, its overhang providing shade for the south-facing main level patio. Following this binary parti, the home’s “public” functions – garage, support rooms, and an open living hall – are located in the brick base, while its “private” spaces – upper level bedrooms, baths, and a small reading room – are housed in the cedar volume.
Exterior steps lead up the slope to the home’s front door, a glazed recess with a delicate steel canopy marking the vertical joint between the two distinct building blocks. The glass entry door opens into a small foyer that leads into the main living hall, an open space for cooking, eating, and sitting, where a series of floor-to-ceiling windows offer arriving guests expansive, carefully framed views into the neighborhood. The deliberately neutral interiors of the living hall are complemented by a troika of dark-stained wood objects that anchor the open space: a small entertainment center; a fireplace and chimney; and a wood wall and canopy cradling an intimate side lounge, which can be separated from the living hall with large pocket doors to serve as a guest bedroom or quiet study. Stairs lead up to the upper level and terminate in a small reading lounge shared by the adjacent three bedrooms.
The carefully restrained exterior material palette is limited to brick and wood. Manufactured in Wisconsin, the elongated Norman brick with horizontally raked mortar joints complements the flush horizontal cedar siding sourced from the state’s northern forests. Together, the saturated dark purple of the ironspot brick and the natural warmth of the sealed wood siding add an unexpected polychrome to the formally disciplined building mass, a subtle nod at the bold colors of the neighborhood’s Victorian homes.
The Linear Cabin is a small, unassuming family retreat, its long, low-slung body sitting on top of a steep bluff overlooking Alma Lake in the sparsely populated Northwoods region of Wisconsin. A narrow gravel road weaves through the forest and leads to a small clearing, where the simple, 900-square-foot bar building marks the threshold between the densely wooded plateau and the lake bluff beyond. With its simple plan, restrained use of materials, and precise detailing, the Linear Cabin continues Wisconsin’s rich legacy of cabin architecture – an unapologetically contemporary building that echoes the elegant clarity and rustic warmth of its typological predecessors but carefully avoids bucolic sentimentality.
The cabin is organized as a series of three identically sized, nearly opaque boxes separated by spatial voids, all tied together with a continuous, thin roof plane that spans the entire length of the building. The storage box offers space for canoes, tools, and logging equipment; the service box contains the cabin infrastructure, including entry, kitchen, bathroom, laundry, and boiler room; and the sleeping box houses two bunk rooms. The void between storage and service boxes is unenclosed, framing views from the clearing toward the lake and offering a covered spot for a vehicle when needed. The void between service and sleeping boxes functions as the hearth room, the center of the cabin anchored by a wood-burning stove. The 15’ wide lift-slide glass doors bracketing the hearth room serve as picture frames, allowing for unobstructed views through the building from the outside and into the sylvan landscape from within.
The cabin’s discreet material palette is based on regionally sourced materials, including a variety of timber products harvested in Wisconsin’s vast northern forests. The opaque boxes are clad with blackened pine planks, their somber darkness echoing the weathered monochrome of traditional Wisconsin cabins. Varnished cedar accentuates the continuous horizontal reveal between the building boxes and the roof plane and acts as a recessed, vertical buffer as the roof folds down at the north end of the house. Inside, walls and ceilings are clad in knotty pine, its inherent rusticity tempered by its crisply detailed joinery and the simple lines of the light-grey, lacquered millwork throughout. A polished dark-grey concrete floor completes the interior palette, providing a sufficiently durable surface against the periodic abuse from dogs, snow shoes, and ski boots.
The O-S House is a small infill residence in Racine, Wisconsin, a rustbelt city epitomizing the painful urban decline of Middle America’s manufacturing centers. Commissioned by a young family, the project is one of the first LEED Platinum homes in the Upper Midwest and demonstrates how a small, sustainable residence built with a moderate budget can become a confident, new urban constituent, a harbinger of change in a city suffering from decades of economic stagnation and urban disinvestment.
Volume I Envelope: Located in an old downtown neighborhood, the 1,900 SF house occupies a narrow infill lot along the edge of Lake Michigan, completing a row of residences built over the last century. Based on massing studies testing the building’s performance in relation to site constraints, program, accessibility to sunlight, shading, stormwater management, and vegetation, the building is a simple rectangular volume that mediates between the three-story mansion to the north and the mid-century ranch to the south. Unlike the opaque masses of the adjacent homes, the main level glazing allows for a visual connection between street and lake. Portions of the compact mass were removed to create a number of outdoor rooms – an open entry court, elevated patios accessible from the upper level, and a shaded main level terrace, all confined within the boundaries of the rectangular volume itself. The upper portion of the house is wrapped in a rainscreen of thin concrete panels suspended between a pair of horizontal steel channels, creating an 8” deep ventilated envelope with superior protection from the elements. Along the edges of the outdoor rooms, the façade system transforms into a delicate scrim of thin aluminum rods, subtly defining the spatial boundaries of these spaces without obstructing any views. A series of floor-to-ceiling apertures penetrate the façade system, their bright colors an unapologetic nod to the cheerful polychrome of the neighborhood’s Victorian homes.
Organization: The main entry facing the street is marked by a small courtyard, bracketed by a glazed vestibule on one side and the dining room on the other. The vestibule connects to a kitchen overlooking the open living area, generously glazed to frame expansive views of the lake and into the neighborhood. A series of sliding glass doors provide access to a large terrace with permeable pavers, allowing the relatively compact living hall to expand to the outside during the summer. A central staircase adjacent to the one-car garage and bike storage leads to the upper level, where three bedrooms share a bathroom and have access to the rooftop patios at the building corners. The stairs terminate in a small study cantilevering over the edge of the house, offering stunning lake views.
Sustainability: The ventilated rainscreen is an integral part of the envelope, achieving a minimum R-value of 35 with the use of soy-based closed-cell foam insulation. Energy-Star rated windows with high-efficiency glazing provide a relatively high level of transparency without compromising the overall performance of the envelope. The compact form of the house allows for a high level of natural ventilation and reduces the need for artificial light. The house is designed to operate off the grid throughout most of the year. Power is generated by photovoltaic laminates adhered directly to the roofing membrane, and by an additional, freestanding PV array; excess energy is fed back into the power grid. A deep-well geothermal system provides heating and cooling and supplements the output of the solar water heater. A re-circulating hot water system and low-flow fixtures reduce water consumption to a minimum. Stormwater is partially harvested or diverted into raingardens, where it can slowly percolate into the ground; exterior hard surfaces such as driveway, the entry path, and terrace utilize permeable pavers.
The Camouflage House sits on a steep lake bluff, its narrow, linear volume nestled into the hillside. Approaching the house from the rugged access road weaving through the site’s heavily wooded plateau, the building’s faint, low-slung silhouette virtually disappears in the surrounding vegetation. With its precisely detailed exterior wood skin and interior wood paneling, the house achieves an elegant clarity and rustic warmth that nevertheless avoids bucolic sentimentality.
Materiality: Informed by careful conceptual studies of the most striking features of the context, a complex system of façade layers wraps around the building’s geometrically disciplined volume. Throughout the house, the superimposition of natural and man-made wood components – natural cedar, resin-based wood veneer panels, glue-laminated posts and beams, exposed MDF paneling – illustrates the wide range of aesthetic and functional characteristics of wood, celebrating the material’s inherent tensions between durability and temporality, perfection and imperfection, nature and technology. The base façade layer is clad in untreated vertical cedar and serves as the backdrop for a series of polychromatic wood veneer resin panels that reverberate the ever-changing hues of the surrounding deciduous trees. The panels overlap with the strict base grid of the building’s exposed structural columns, echoing the rhythmic shift between tree trunks as one moves through the forest. Over time, the cedar walls will weather to a silver-gray, while the wood veneer panels will retain their original color and pristine finish.
Interiors: The inside of the house, while unapologetically contemporary, continues Wisconsin’s long history of lake cottage architecture, which has traditionally featured exposed timber construction, interior wood siding, combined living and dining halls centered around a fireplace, and a limited palette of natural materials. Meticulously detailed, the entire entry level of the Camouflage House is clad with clear-sealed MDF panels, held apart by reveals that accentuate the structural rhythm of the house and align with the exposed engineered wood beams above.
Organization: From the small clearing of the entry court, the low roof plane of the open breezeway connecting house and garage leads to a linear, glazed foyer that penetrates the two-story bar building and terminates into a partially covered balcony with spectacular views of the lake. Stairs connect to the lower level, which is fully exposed on the lake side and houses all bedrooms, providing access to the zero-edge bluff terrace that stretches along the entire length of the building and to the master bedroom “grotto,” an intimate outdoor space between the western edge of the house and the site’s imposing rock formation. On the upper level, kitchen, dining and living functions occupy an open space that can extend into the adjacent spacious screen porch by retracting the large, foldable glass door system separating the two. Throughout the spring, summer, and fall, the screen porch functions as the home’s lung, taking advantage of the mild lake breezes.
Structure: The main volume of the house is a simple post-and-beam structure based on a strict 48” o.c. baseline. The exposed glue-laminated roof beams are supported by 4x6 wood posts. 2x6 stud walls fill in the structural frame and provide lateral strength. 1 1/8” thick plywood spans between the roof beams and cantilevers over the building edge to allow for an exceptionally thin roof line.
Sustainability: The design is based on a set of sustainable components and materials to minimize the building’s environmental impact. The specified lumber products are native and sourced locally, or are FSC-certified, depending on their availability. Walls achieve an R-30 insulation value with soy-based expanding foam insulation, and all windows are Energy-Star rated. Roofing membranes contain recycled rubber. Throughout the house, low-VOC sealers and paints were specified. The concrete used for foundations and for the exposed floors and walls has a high fly ash content.
Located at the northern edge of downtown Milwaukee and overlooking Lake Michigan, Prospect Pool is a small architectural intervention to reinvigorate the stale aura of Prospect Towers, a 23-story apartment complex built in 1963 whose original epicurean luster had faded considerably over time by wear and tear and the changing demographics of its residents.
As an integral part of the comprehensive structural overhaul of the concrete parking plinth supporting the apartment tower, we designed a new outdoor pool deck, creating a distinct building amenity that takes full advantage of the panoramic views of the lakefront and complement the architecture of the original building itself.
The project consists of a number of clearly defined architectural components, designed to accommodate a variety of spatial conditions, strengthen the perimeters of the pool deck, and allow for adequate levels of privacy and exposure. The tower opens into a covered, two-story public terrace carved out of the base of the tower. A series of thin, continuous light strips mark the building entrance, illuminating the building’s blank, two-story stair shaft before folding into the floor. Wide, processional steps lead from the terrace down to the open pool deck, where two rows of cabanas, carefully detailed installations that serve as sheltered outdoor rooms, bracket the center pool and provide a backdrop against which the curious rituals of pool-side life, vacillating between activity and repose, between exhibition and inhibition, can unfold.
The cabanas are simple, componentized structures, shop-built and set in place by a crane to expedite construction time. Each cabana consists of a steel frame supporting a cantilevered, louvered roof plane, a thin white brise-soleil seemingly floating between the wood-clad shear walls separating the individual rooms. Curtains can be drawn or retracted to achieve the desired levels of privacy and shade, their white, undulating fabric and delicate texture adding a sensual dimension to the cabanas’ exacting details and geometric discipline.
Prospect Pool exemplifies how a small but precise architectural intervention can re-energize a large-scale structure widely viewed as dated and worn, offering a sustainable alternative to today’s increasingly ubiquitous tabula rasa approach, where buildings at the perceived end of their useful lives get annihilated instead of being re-imagined and given a second chance to adapt to a changing world.
national WWI memorial
The Plaza to a Forgotten War is a memorial and urban park dedicated to the heroic sacrifices made by Americans during World War I. An expansive, linear field of inground fiber-optic lights fills the center of the site, forming a dense and seemingly endless grid of illuminated markers that conveys the staggering scale of losses endured. Sculptural cast-bronze pillars march down the field of lights, their weathering skins carrying milled imagery of the novel war machines that rendered this conflict so unprecedentedly destructive. The bronze pillars support precious, cast-glass monoliths, their translucent surfaces inscribed with intimate letters from servicemen and women torn between hope and despair. Linear benches provide visitors a place of contemplation, inviting them to rest and share in a collective sense of remembrance.
Allées of Pin Oaks bracket the granite-paved plaza and provide shade, leading to a small grove next to the restored Pershing Memorial where the General solemnly stands watch over the field of lights. Evoking the rolling battlefields of Europe, sloped meadows embrace the plaza’s perimeter like clasping hands, creating a soft, undulating buffer that bursts into a sea of crimson poppies every spring. Acting as an informal counterpoint to the strict formality of the memorial itself, the northern half of the site transforms into a great lawn bordered by the mature trees of Pennsylvania Avenue, a greenspace offering visual repose designed for recreation and programmed events.
The site’s landscape features weave together the carefully choreographed layers of meaning, creating an inviting and sustainable urban park that devotedly holds onto the memory of a momentous war while accommodating the vibrancy of contemporary life – a dignified memorial plaza that faithfully upholds Washington’s distinguished legacy of monuments paying tribute to our nation’s unsung heroes.
Overlooking the Milwaukee River, this bar is located in a small space carved out of an unexceptional commercial development on the southern edge of downtown. In an effort to counteract the sterility of the building’s cheap, antiseptic finishes, we designed an interior space with a high level of tactility, visual complexity, and drama. A deeply textured wood slat wall, echoing the enigmatic undulation of heavy stage curtains, leads from the building lobby into the bar area before it wraps overhead and cradles the mezzanine, where it transforms into a screen for intimate upper level seating. The rhythmic modulations of the wood slats, reinforced by a series of thin structural steel columns supporting the mezzanine, forms the backdrop for a continuous ribbon of back-lit, custom-fabricated cellular plastic panels weaving through the two-story space. Rising up from the main level bar, the ribbon runs above the main lounge seating before wrapping down again to form a small stage for nightly bands. Spatially, the light ribbon normalizes the skewed geometry of the room and ties together the programmatic elements on both levels. In addition, it consolidates and veils the bar’s entire technical infrastructure, avoiding the mechanical clutter that so often compromises the purity of commercial spaces. Atmospherically, the ribbon’s deep red color washes the entire space with a sensuous incandescence, creating an ambiance for unapologetic aesthetic indulgence. At night, the Downtown Bar emits its mysterious glow through a series of large custom sliding doors into Milwaukee’s somber nights, subtly marking the resurgence of this downtown neighborhood.
The Ferrous House is the careful, sustainable reinvention of a prototypically ill-conceived suburban production home at the end of its life cycle. This project challenges the ordinary but environmentally irresponsible tabula rasa approach – tear down and build bigger – and offers a sensible alternative, illustrating how the bones of a dysfunctional building can be reclaimed as the framework for a contemporary, precisely detailed dwelling. The project is a case study for a resource-conscious suburban renewal in a time of economic and ecological distress.
Concept: Located in a subdivision west of Milwaukee, the existing 1,300sf structure, a dark house with minimal fenestration, had been fallen into disrepair. While the project brief asked for a radical aesthetic and spatial metamorphosis, the severely limited construction budget, and the client’s environmental awareness, commanded the reuse of major elements of the existing building, including the foundations, main perimeter walls, and plumbing stacks. The interior was gutted and re-organized to create open, interconnected spaces. Linear cedar-clad storage boxes, containing built-in closet systems and living room cabinetry, cantilever over the edge of the building and add desperately needed square footage without altering the original footprint of the house. A new shed roof, supported by a filigree of exposed metal and wood trusses, adds height to the living spaces and allows northern light to wash the inside of the house through a long band of translucent, aerogel-filled polycarbonate glazing. At night, the window band radiates its warm light into the distance, subtly evoking the iconic clerestory glow of the dairy barns that once dotted the region.
Organization: In a carefully choreographed new entry sequence, wide exterior stairs run along the front of the house and lead up to a small glazed porch. From here, stairs weave through the house and terminate in a small observatory above the new roof plane. The building’s simple rectangular volume is wrapped on three sides with a weathering steel rainscreen, its warm color of ferrous corrosion echoing the hues of the derelict farm equipment left behind on the area’s abandoned pastures. In the back, the steel wrapper extends beyond the edge of the building and shelters the sides of a linear south-facing patio and a screen porch, which is accessible from the living hall through a fully retractable folding glass door system. In the summer, the living hall expands into the screen porch, transforming into the building’s “green lung” that draws in the cool breeze from the nearby woods and naturally conditions the house.
Sustainability: Throughout the building, sustainable systems and materials were specified, including low-VOC paints and stains, recycled steel, high-efficiency mechanical systems, Energy Star-rated windows, and locally sourced woods. High-endurance “Vaproshield” wall membranes and high-efficiency cellular insulation complement the ventilated perimeter rainscreen façade system, one of the best performing building skin assemblies available. The aerogel-filled clerestory has an R-value exceeding that of regular insulating glass by 90% and minimizes the need for artificial light.
This urban residence with commanding views of Milwaukee’s skyline occupies 2,600sf on the top floor of a former cold storage facility. The program of the home was organized in three parallel zones. A long living hall, flooded with natural light and bracketed by an open kitchen on one end and a generous sun room on the other, occupies the first, most public zone. Two narrow floor-to-ceiling cabinet towers anchor the linear space and incorporate storage, art niches, wine racks, and A/V equipment as well as the home’s fireplace while creating more intimate areas for dining, lounging, and sitting.
The second zone is occupied by a series of flex spaces separated from the living hall by 8’ square translucent sliding panels that can be completely retracted. Depending on the panels’ position, these flex rooms can be totally separated from the living hall or completely connected to it to serve either as private bedrooms, dens or media rooms, or to provide additional gathering space for larger social events. The translucent panels allow daylight to penetrate deep into the unit, illuminating areas that otherwise would have no access to natural light. Conversely, the panels transform into enigmatic canvases when lit from behind, their blurred projections subtly revealing glimpses of life unfolding in the adjacent rooms.
The third spatial layer contains the home’s most private functions, including a spacious master bath, walk-in closets, storage space, and other back-of-the house functions. “Landlocked” deep inside the building because of existing plumbing shafts, the walls and floor of the cavernous bathroom space are lined with thin stacked stone tiles, their horizontal format alluding to geological strata. In the center of the bathroom, the floor plane folds up to create a raised plinth for the tub. Floating above the plinth, an open bamboo frame serves as vanity and spatial device that organizes the room into distinct but interconnected areas. Within the bamboo frame, a pair of suspended two-sided mirrors forms the backdrop for simple vessel sinks, altering the perception of the bathroom’s actual boundaries while allowing views to the other side of the space.
parts house pavilion
Project Statement: The client approached us to generate ideas for the 1,500 square foot blacktop roof above his loft in a renovated 1920s warehouse, the Parts House, on Milwaukee’s Southside. The program asked for an outdoor living room flexible enough to allow for intimate dinners as well as large social events, a place providing seclusion for sunbathing or, alternately, protection from the sun and western winds, without compromising the stunning views of the city. Working with a limited budget of $56,000, we designed an open air pavilion of shop-fabricated trellis-like steel members supporting a curtain of sliding steel frames sheathed with polychromatic transparent and translucent plastic. Depending on their arrangement, the panels provide various levels of privacy or exposure, offer shelter, and act as picture frame and color filter: looking outward from the roof, different color combinations shift the views of the city, framing the skyline and changing Milwaukee’s somber skies to shades of yellow, red, and blue. At night, with the help of a sophisticated lighting system, the illuminated panels transform into a phantasmagoria of colors and shadows, highly visible from Milwaukee’s main freeway artery rushing nearby. The roof pavilion has become a neighborhood beacon, an extraordinary public spectacle and a symbol of urban vitality. It exemplifies how a small-scale urban intervention can have a major impact on its larger-scale environment.
Context: Located in the middle of a blue-collar neighborhood ripped apart by a freeway and a declining Rust Belt economy, the roof pavilion is part of an intriguing mix of contrasting urban constituents, a typological Noah’s Arc: dense blocks of workers’ cottages, corner bars, abandoned factories, churches, boat yards, and swaths of empty land. Interaction between the private realm of the roof pavilion and this diverse urban setting was paramount. From the rooftop, the surrounding city views change each time the panels are re-arranged. From the street, the pavilion serves as an iconic sculpture, a non-commercial billboard that illuminates the otherwise dark Southside skyline.
Constructability: The roof pavilion consists of a simple steel superstructure consisting of shop-assembled elements and extending the structural logic of the existing building beyond the roof plane. This structural framework serves two major functions. On one hand, as a seemingly integral part of the existing warehouse, it defines spatial boundaries for the patio. On the other hand, it supports the curtain of movable panels and resists the considerable wind forces to which the panels are exposed, in order to create a livable outdoor environment 65 feet up in the air.
Flexibility: The curtain of sliding panels allows for an almost unlimited number of spatial and atmospherical settings. The panels can be arranged to screen either the entirety or merely portions of the patio, depending on the desired use, weather, or time of the day, while simultaneously defining a variety of spaces. The polychromatic spectrum of the panels enables the client to utilize the colors appropriate for the occasion. At night, the lit panels provide the right ambiance for a cocktail party. Meanwhile, on a cloudy day, the bright-colored panels may function as a mood enhancer. In addition, the pavilion’s trellis panels over portions of the patio offer another level of spatial definition and can be supplemented with retractable canvases for enhanced overhead screening.
salve staff canteen
Salve is a small canteen serving the cooks, janitors, and maids of the Pfister, Milwaukee’s premier Grand Hotel, an ornate masonry structure in the city center built in 1893 by a prominent tannery baron. Located deep in the subterranean belly of this Romanesque Revival monolith and without any access to daylight, the 960 SF cafeteria was carved out of a cluttered maze of small residual spaces previously occupied by storage closets, abandoned mechanical equipment, and provisional break rooms. Benefitting a community of workers at the bottom of the economic food chain, this modest back-of-the-house project demonstrates the transformative power that architecture can have, regardless of scope or budget limitations.
We designed a simple perimeter wrapper that weaves around existing massive foundation columns and conceals the basement’s ubiquitous mechanical and structural clutter, tying together the fragmented spaces and transforming them into a quiet dining room whose modest elegance offers a welcome respite from the hotel’s Victorian opulence. Throughout the space, carefully positioned “history apertures” – deep acrylic-sheathed frames – penetrate Salve’s clean perimeter wall to peel away and expose hidden layers of the hotel’s past. Quarried masonry foundations, iron pipes, old furring strips, cracked plaster walls, paint spills and water stains from previous leaks: laid bare and subtly illuminated, these historic traces become artifacts, constructing an eloquent narrative of the building’s structural and aesthetic DNA. Transforming the canteen into an informal archeological gallery, the apertures become windows into the past, their warm incandescence washing the space in warm light.
Entering Salve from the busy corridor that runs along the hotel’s main kitchen, a wall with floor-to-ceiling supergraphics folds into a linear food service zone and leads to a 21’ long harvest table in the center of the space, a linear communal table under a wooden ceiling canopy inviting employees to share their meals in larger groups. Alternatively, workers may prefer to sit in the more intimate niches created by the undulations of the perimeter wrapper.
The Kadish Amphitheater is a small multifunctional bandshell pavilion nestled in bucolic Kadish Park overlooking downtown Milwaukee.
The building consists of a simple folded concrete band with a secure cedar-clad locker box, providing shade and protection from rain and transforming from open air stage to silver screen by retracting sliding panels along the back edge. Instead of permanently blocking the hillside vista of downtown, the concrete ribbon creates a picture frame, capturing views of Milwaukee’s skyline and Lake Michigan. Looking up to the pavilion from the street at the bottom of the hill, the folded concrete band frames the idyllic landscape and sky on top of the hill. The pavilion was designed as a flexible structure accommodating a variety of events, including concerts, neighborhood gatherings, and movies. Even when not actively programmed, the white structure becomes a permanent folly in the park, a sculptural object in the best tradition of Milwaukee’s park architecture. Its folded form offers a variety of formal gestures, depending on the direction from which you approach it, and is based on a series of simple folds of an in-situ concrete slab, an economic and durable material with superb sculptural characteristics. The building is supplemented by the cedar-clad locker, a secure storage box that houses the stage infrastructure and as well as the sliding backdrop panels.
A small architectural intervention embedded in the spatial vacuum of suburbia, the Layton Pavilion functions as a gatehouse connecting a large strip mall parking lot and a walled-in, undevelopable brownfield site used as a provisional public green space along a busy suburban intersection. Working with a limited stipend, we designed a simple cast-in-place concrete pavilion, a skim-coated apron that hovers over the southwest corner of the brownfield site and marks the link between the two spaces. The crisp, austere form, its unapologetic blackness a stark contrast to the beige cheerfulness of its surroundings, creates an unexpected sense of gravitas in the weightless monotony of the suburban landscape.
Surrounded by an abundance of aesthetic timidity and literally leading from nowhere to nowhere, the pavilion itself becomes the destination, a reinterpretation of the archetypal folly in the park that offers a series of basic visceral and corporeal experiences rarely found in this context: the sudden spatial compression when entering; the controlled framing of views and vistas, through slits, walls, and roof; an occupiable object carefully scaled to be encountered by walking people, not speeding cars; the polished concrete planes, their tangible solidity and material authenticity a peculiar exception in an environment dominated by the antiseptic shallowness of thin veneers. The linear raingarden located below the roof edge allows stormwater to percolate into the ground, its native prairie grasses a welcome reprieve from the surrounding sea of asphalt.
Spatiality, scale, materiality – the Layton Pavilion reintroduces these fundamental concepts to the experientially impoverished realm of the urban periphery. Empty and ominous as it sits in the middle of the suburban void, it serves as a quiet monument to the richness of the human condition.
As the harbinger of a large-scale development slated for LEED certification, the Palomar Welcome Center utilizes an abandoned one-story warehouse building on the edge of Milwaukee’s Park East redevelopment corridor. The area, an urban desert formerly occupied by an underused freeway spur, is slated to be transformed into the Palomar District, a series of mixed-use projects that will connect downtown to the adjacent neighborhoods. The Welcome Center itself includes a public lounge, offices, a gallery, and a model residence - an interactive hub to connect investors, business owners and residents with each other and present the urban vision for the area to the general public.
A long translucent glass scrim with supergraphic etching wraps the windowless face of the existing brick building, creating an elegant, immaterial facade that transcends the distinction between building and signage. Illuminated from behind with off-the-shelf fluorescent strip lights, the scrim transforms the building into an urban Laterna Magica, a beacon projecting its message of change into the neighborhood poised for a renaissance. The south-facing scrim also creates a thermal buffer for the building, reducing the solar impact on the building envelope during the summer while providing an additional protective layer in colder months.
The Palomar Welcome Center was designed around a palette of sustainable and recyclable materials, including bamboo flooring, locally quarried stone and locally harvested woods as well as low-VOC paints. More importantly, the project presents a sustainable alternative to the resource-intensive tabula rasa approach that still dominates contemporary architectural production, demonstrating how the bones of an obsolete structure can be recycled into an exciting new urban constituent.
Visitors enter the Welcome Center through a frameless glass vestibule and walk into a public gallery, an open space with three zones defined by ceiling bands suspended from the exposed roof trusses. The first one, an illuminated wood ribbon, leads from the entry into the gallery, where it turns down to transform into the backdrop for the information desk. The second band marks a seating zone for informal gatherings, taking advantage of the linear masonry fireplace that anchors the open space. The third band defines a conference room that can be closed off from the gallery by a set of large sliding glass panels; when the panels are completely retracted behind the masonry hearth, the meeting room becomes an integral part of the gallery space. The gallery also offers access to a model apartment to demonstrate the sustainable features of the development’s residential portion. All offices are organized along the building’s east wall, where they have access to natural light and air. The rest of the original building is used as a warehouse and staging area for contractors involved in the construction of the project.
house in the woods
Carefully sited on a heavily wooded bluff, the 2,700 sf residence for a very private couple and their occasional guests is organized as a thin one-story bar building with a simple roof that sits parallel to the bluff. Two 16-foot wide apertures with custom mahogany and glass sliding doors puncture the unassuming, nearly opaque volume of the house, opening up views of the site and Lake Michigan beyond as you arrive in the entry court.
A trellised walk, lifted slightly off the ground, anchors the house to the site; it weaves through the tree trunks and leads to the 8-foot wide pivoting entry door. The continuous trellis beams penetrate the glass-roofed entry foyer, then wrap around the other side of the house over an elevated patio before forming the exposed structure of the living hall ceiling, thus subtly blurring the boundaries between inside and outside. A small second-story observatory with floor-to-ceiling glass walls on two sides offers the residents an intimate setting to survey their property from an elevated perspective. The garage, connected to the main house by a narrow utility wing, features a thin roof plain hovering above a continuous polycarbonate clerestory band. At night, the clerestory functions as a lantern whose enigmatic glow is visible from the distant road, softly illuminating the entry court and the surrounding landscape as the iconic address sign of the house.
The materials, textures and hues of the house – cedar, concrete, steel, cementboard– and the carefully crafted details of the house echo the simple elegance and pragmatic beauty of the area’s rural architecture. Deep vertical battens establish a rigorous tectonic rhythm that organizes the building’s entire façade, transforming it into an undulating yet highly structured canvas for the shadows of the surrounding trees. Inside and outside, sustainable materials were specified, such as recycled steel roofing, reclaimed wood flooring, concrete block from a local manufacturer, low-VOC paint, native woods and ironwood from managed forests. The house was located on the site with minimal impact on the existing vegetation. In the summer, dense birch groves to the east and south form a natural canopy protecting the house from the sun; the narrow footprint of the house maximizes the use of natural daylight and facilitates cross-ventilation, thus minimizing the need for air conditioning. In the winter, the large west-facing glass skylight functions as a natural heater, capturing sunlight from noon until sunset, thereby reducing heating levels throughout the long Wisconsin winters.
This project offers an architecturally rigorous and environmentally sustainable solution for a private residence in a rural context.
Transcending the notion of one central “common green”, this proposal for a multi-unit infill housing development in Eastern Portland, OR, envisions a web of interconnected two-story homes and intimate courtyard spaces, creating a spatially engaging, sustainable neighborhood. The 12 buildings are based on a kit of prefabricated components, including precast concrete, wood veneer rainscreen panels, and high-efficiency glazing. Green roofs create an extensive topographic roofscape accessible from the homes below. The buildings extend down into a partially submerged parking plinth, where bamboo groves rise from sunken rain gardens absorbing rainwater runoff. Openings in the plinth provide daylight and ventilation for the parking pods and allow the tall bamboo to grow up into the courtyards above. The 12 homes can be configured and combined to allow for a variety of unit sizes, ranging from 530 to 1,890 SF each. Buildings cover a total area of 6,960 SF, or about 41% of the site.
Hometta, a collaborative web venture that offers modern house plans for sale, approached Johnsen Schmaling Architects to design a small protorypical home that could be constructed in various parts of the country and easily modified to respond to particular site constraints.
House ONE offers a functionally flexible plan adaptable to a broad spectrum of contexts. Composed of a simple yet well choreographed form and material palette, House ONE demonstrates how a small house can achieve a high level of spatial complexity with economic means.
The main level of the two-story house is a compact rectangular open living area with access to a full-width exterior garden terrace and connection to the single car garage. A central two-sided hearth spatially anchors the main living spaces and defines the primary entryway that carves into the house. On the upper level, two bedroom suites occupy the dramatic cantilevered bar that provides shelter to the terrace below, as well as a balcony framing panoramic views of the surrounding landscape or neighborhood.
House ONE is conceived to take advantage of conventional residential assembly techniques, systems, and local trades, or more appropriately, efficient panelized systems minimizing on-site construction time and maximizing resource utilization. Configuration options available include a one or two car attached garage or carport, vegetated roof or photovoltaic solar roof laminates, partial basement level or slab-on-grade, and screened-in garden terrace porch.
Context: The proposed housing prototype exemplifies how a componentized building can play a vital role in a neighborhood’s renaissance. Based on a kit of premanufactured parts, the building mediates between the street and the sculpture park, creating visually connections between the two sides and defining their edges with an ever-changing façade of folding screen panels that provide various levels of privacy and serve as a protective layer against the sun and strong winds. The height of the building responds to the context, as does its materiality: the warm colors of the woods and weathering steel complement the area’s brick buildings and proudly echo the industrial past of the neighborhood.
Modular Construction: The off-site fabrication of all major building components creates a simple system that reduces waste and construction time and facilitates a highly flexible framework for different types of dwelling units. Precast concrete panels with integral plumbing chases support a system of engineered wood beams, forming the building’s primary structural skeleton that accepts the pre-assembled sandwiched floor/ceiling panels with an integral electrical grid for in-floor receptacles and ceiling light fixtures. Selecting from a palette of prefabricated exterior infill panels and based on the unit plan, an occupant can chose the degree of transparency of the individual unit.
Green Building: Sustainability was paramount in the design of the housing prototype. Most of the premanufactured components can be made of recycled or recyclable materials. A green roof will reduce stormwater runoff, eliminate heat islands, and increase the roof’s insulation value. High-efficiency glass and the use of high-efficiency foam insulation in sandwiched floor and wall panels will decrease heating and cooling needs. The folding screen panels made of perforated steel function as a climate buffer, providing shade during the summer and reducing the impact of string winds in the winter.
Unit Flexibility: The layout of the dwelling unit depends on the occupant’s lifestyle. We are showing two plan versions as typical examples. The first unit includes one bedroom and a studio, with a double-height space over the living room; the second has two bedrooms. A powder room may be added on the main level, as long as it plugs into one of the plumbing chases integral to the concrete wall panels. All units feature a garage with transparent or translucent overhead doors on both sides, illuminating the street and park at night and allowing for natural light and street exposure when used as an artist studio or business.
Milwaukee’s Blatz Brewery, one of the country’s oldest and now defunct breweries listed on the National register of Historic Places, occupies a narrow downtown block. Built between 1851 and 1910, the massive masonry monolith had undergone a series of alterations in the 1980s to accommodate for apartments and offices but had subsequently fallen into disrepair. Working with a limited budget and within the strict parameters of the existing structure, we focused our efforts on a series of small interventions to re-imagine the building’s public sphere. A canopied street-level entrance leads into the new central lobby that bundles the main circulation spines and creates a lively interchange between offices, apartments, and new commercial spaces. Sliding between existing masonry columns, a narrow glowing box serves as concierge and small coffee shop. Buffered by a bamboo grove, the lobby overlooks a lower level lounge featuring a series of monumental bottle doors; depending on the doors’ position, the lounge can be used as one large open space, or divided into smaller intimate areas. An open-air roof pavilion provides a satellite amenity for all building users. Overlooking the skyline, the thin light strips lining the pavilion’s roof structure emit an enigmatic glow into Milwaukee’s somber nights, marking the urban resurgence of this downtown neighborhood.
BOTTLE DOORS: Each pivoting bottle door is 9’-6” wide and 9’ tall and consists of a welded aluminum frame and 1,590 horizontally stacked empty beer bottles, some of which were original Blatz bottles found in unopened boxes in the basement of this old brewery. Using CNC technology, the bottles are held in place by a thin web of precision-milled neoprene rings that are suspended between the members of the aluminum frame. Illuminated on all sides, the brown bottles emanate a warm amber glow reflected in the polished concrete floor. We developed a customized pivoting hardware set that allows a lounge guest to rotate each door around its center axis, thus permitting a high degree of spatial flexibility: the space can be totally open or, alternatively, private parties can be held in one part of the lounge while the other one remains accessible to the public.
ENTRY VESSEL: The entry vessel consolidates the service amenities for the lobby, including building security systems, an office for the building manager and concierge, as well as a small espresso and sandwich shop. Sliding between two existing masonry columns, the narrow rectangular volume is sheathed with back-lit sandblasted polycarbonate glazing and wrapped with wooden slats. Its soft luminosity subtly lights up the lobby as it echoes the amber hues from the bottle doors, providing an ethereal backdrop for the daily activities unfolding in the lobby. A linear grove of 9’ tall bamboo was planted along railings overlooking the lower level lounge. The grove acts as an acoustic and visual buffer, screening the lounge from the upper lobby’s bustle, and actively improves the overall air quality of the two-story space.
ROOF PAVILION: The roof pavilion consists of a simple steel superstructure constructed from a set of prefabricated shop-assembled elements that were lifted up onto the roof by a crane and connected in the field. A kit of polyacrylic sheets can be attached to the trellis beams for overhead screening. Thin LED strips are mounted to the underside of the trellis beams to provide ambiance lighting for the terrace. Simultaneously, the illuminated roof pavilion activates the corner of the building and transforms into a small neighborhood beacon, visible from dozens of blocks away.
ENTRY CANOPY: The entry canopy, marking the main entrance of the building and anchoring the internal lobby to the city outside, hovers over the drop-off area and penetrates the glass curtainwall, where it defines a small vestibule. Providing a dramatic visual effect when viewed from the street, the thin lighting strips with custom-designed translucent Eco-Resin lenses illuminate the sidewalk and then extend down vertically in the vestibule area, creating a dramatic interstitial transition between outside and inside.
Downtown Milwaukee, not unlike many other cities in America, is dominated by the automobile: Since the early 1950s, when the city’s ongoing existential fight against suburbia began, freeways, surface parking lots, and monstrous parking ramps have replaced a good part of Milwaukee’s original urban fabric. The result has been devastating, leading to a life-less central city with gaping holes, its raison-d’ être reduced to a giant car storage for adjacent office towers. In the last decade, however, downtown Milwaukee has seen an unprecedented rebirth, with new buildings built and abandoned ones renovated and converted, and with people moving back into the urban core.
“Downtown Garage” re-imagines one of the most notorious above-ground parking facilities in Milwaukee, covering almost one half of an entire city block and addresses one of the main concerns in contemporary American urban planning: Considering that ample, comfortable parking is still a prerequisite for the city’s survival, how can these mammoth buildings be transformed into productive urban constituents, into real assets for the community that transcend their utilitarian nature? Instead of tearing the 7-story building down and rebuilding it from scratch, we are proposing a more sustainable solution that takes advantage of the building’s healthy “bones.” The first two levels will be surgically gutted and reorganized into commercial space. A two-story concrete-framed “retail box” will be inserted into the volume and create the main entrance to the building. A retractable glass door system can be opened during the warmer months of the year, connecting the inside of the “retail box” with the street and eliminating the need for artificial air conditioning. Above, a fabric of cast translucent panels, made from recycled acrylic resin, will wrap the 5 stories of parking. Mounted on a simple aluminum frame that integrates a sophisticated LED lighting system, the panels serve as an elegant screen for the parking ramp and as a canvas for light projections at night. The garage thus constantly transforms its appearance: During the day, the translucent skirt captures and reflects the sunlight at different angles, depending not only on the time of the day but also on the direction from which one approaches the building. At night, the lighting system inside the garage illuminates the wrapper, turning the building into a vibrant, glowing object in the middle of downtown. In collaboration with fabricators and engineers, we have examined and tested different patterns and installation techniques for the panels, examining their effect on the parking structure’s overall aura.